Lean design is a step by step process that involves a plan to minimizing non-value-added tasks and improving the work of production in Toyota Company. In Toyota Production, design is the major part of the whole process since a good design will yield good results as customer satisfaction and quality cars. As a designer, I will have to come up with general methodologies which can help me to design while keeping the costs as low as possible. The use of lean design approach will help me to analyze and suggest the likely improvements to enhance on the productions. Lean designed projects are easier to manage and are safer. It also takes less time meaning it cost less and are of better quality. This report aims at unveiling the principles and design methods and steps to I will take in identifying and reducing wastes.
Before embarking on the design task, I have to put into considerations some issues such as Identifying and specifying the requirements of a customer, how will the customers view the general process of production and the feelings of the end users of the outcome. I will ask myself if my design task will bring value to the customers and if it will enable the entire production team solve any arising problems. My task, in general, will be to define the value from the customer’s perspective.
Looking from the customer’s perspective, some tasks that do not add values must be done like asking for pay from customers since failure to do so, will automatically render the company out of the business. To do this I must specifically find out how much a customer will be willing to pay so that I will plan effectively on design schedule with regards to customer requirements. After confirming the requirement of a customer, a challenge emerges as the project should be done efficiently and not how faster. Determinations of needed tasks again are determined before embarking on a design process for a certain production project. According to Drucker Peter, doing something efficiently which in the first place should not have been done or was not necessary is useless.
First I will design a simulation model which aims at eliminating wastes resulting from production. This will include a way of reducing machine setup time. I will come up with objectives for the design of the production system which will include Identification and delivering value to the customer by eliminating anything that does not add value. Organizing designs as a continuous flow for Perfect the product and creating a reliable flow through distributing information and decision making and delivering a product meeting customer requirements with nothing in inventory.
I will design on techniques which enables the implementation of long term designs while putting other factors into consideration such as, such as a focus on long-term results, re-educating people, and commitment to product quality. Toyota proved that what drives profits in the long term is by measuring the benefit derived from ongoing respect the customer. Designs for the short term and self-interest could be quite easy, but it is worthwhile to direct the objectives of the business toward economic well-being for humanity.
To eliminate wastes and reduce storage cost of materials, I will ensure the use of just -in-Time technique, this will ensure that the customers get what they want when they want it and in the amount they want. In terms of applying design principles, the system would use the leanest possible technique where it seems impossible to find an overproduction. The implementation of design continuity in the workflow is needed to ensure stability in the workload in a realistic manner. The first step in applying this technique is by leveling out the over production by production management or production control people. Toyota works to avoid the impact of the three kind of waste in this area, namely;Muda, Mura and Muri, by analyzing the inputs of this task then to split them according to the work-plan and the opportunities. Production design of automotive engine has a fundamental rule “do not shut down the plant”; and it exactly the way that adapts “Which means if the assembly plant were not shut down, it had no problems. However, solving problems as they arise will be my continuous responsibility leading to better quality productions and efficiency.
I will design the businesses and the standardization processes of heading to the source, observing deeply, and learning to become the backbone of the organization, which became the Toyota’s standardization philosophy Without employing the method of impromptu discussion, this will enable my fellow team members will be able to acquire any learning that will make them able to introduce some improvements in how they approach their work, if there is no presence of a standardized process. Moving on from the job that will be performed by an individual would result in total loss of learning. For sustainable and real innovation, establishing standards is important.
I will make sure that in my design environment there are labels and signs everywhere since people are visual creatures. These signs and labels will enable me to see whether the work is in a standard condition or a deviation. Having discussions by the team work at well-designed charts on a wall is more effective. People care if the work place is visual whereas robots do not, thus the Toyota philosophy supports people always. The 5S program consists of a sequence of activities to minimize waste in terms of defects, errors, and injuries in the work environment, namely: sort, straighten, shine, standardize and sustain. All the 5s lead the workplace to be visually controlled Toyota has had experience with adapting the latest technology; however, since Toyota concentrates on the stability, reliability, and predictability, the organization avoids making this mistake again. Also, Toyota is not willing to jump on the technology unless there is a serious reason for taking this step a second time. That is why Toyota has constantly expressed interest in design technology advancement and encouraging its staff to “think outside the box” when considering new ways to work The Toyota philosophy aims to add value to the organization by reinvestment in people and partners.
To ensure that the right design practice run continuously in the organization, the next generation of senior management should be prepared to lead the work on the right way. At Toyota, they place the maximum value on their employees and do the best put into practice planning design process. Throughout Toyota’s history; there have always been internal leaders qualified to step up the plate. The Toyota production system has been called a “Respect Humanity System”. According to Sam Heltman; SVPA; “Mutual respect and trust in Toyota culture means Toyota respects and trust that the team member will perform the task successful as a company”. All design systems in Toyota are to support the team doing value-added effort as well as they have excellently balanced team and individual and group and the individual work superiority. Therefore my design will be about respecting the employees and pushing them instead of granting those rewards regardless of how much they have worked to earn them at Toyota, they should have elevated principles regarding superiority and they expect everyone in partnership to elevate themselves to those principles and assist them to achieve that.
Basing my lean design on auto companies in America, they wanted to make their suppliers relationships the best because they were tired of hearing how great Toyota was at teaching and developing its suppliers. It was noticeable that the American companies faced two major inherent problems, which were the major focus being on a “carrot -and- stick” approach to management without gaining an understanding of the processes that suppliers employ, and deficiency in employee development. Decades have been spent by Toyota in establishing a design enterprise which is strong and lean. The TPS provides its concept “Respect for humanity system”; when a partner becomes an extension of Toyota as a part of contributing to society by supporting their partners. The core value within the Toyota way is the challenge to make its people and business partners are developed.
I will aim at achieving organizational lean design by focusing on the continuously solving root problems. According to the Toyota way, managers and employees must develop a deep understanding of the design process flow and standards of work and must possess the ability to do a critical evaluation and analysis of the problems. The employees should know their way to a problem’s roots and be observant and communicative in terms of making others aware of the problem. Tadashi, Toyota Technical Center’s president, believes that the decisions have to be made on the basis of information that is factual and not theoretical and this lies at the root of observing the occurrences, recalling what was seen and identifying the problems and the issues Toyota’s secrets in this principle of smooth application of fresh initiatives include decision making, problem solving, the whole design planning process being underlined and planning which is upfront and careful in very detail. Asking “Why?” five times is a way thoroughly to analyze the root cause of the problem.
Though these design will consume a lot of time, it helps broaden the search for solutions as well as setting the stage for rapid implementation once a decision is made Toyota production system principles can be applied by using the essential tools of the Toyota way, which are; JIT, 5s, visual control, flow manufacturing, Kanban, quality assurance, changeover, leveled production, multi-process operation, maintenance and safety, standard operation, Jodoka, manpower reduction and awareness The right understanding and design implementation of the needed tools will fulfill the expected improvement in the outputs of the organization. The execution of MPS at a construction location is done by taking a look-ahead design plan and extracting little necessary work parts from it.
My task in Lean design will be to ultimately lead my fellow team members to think in terms of simultaneous use of education, additional training, and advanced technology along with economic growth, as opposed to just teaching them waste control in some part of the process. The right understanding and implementation of the needed tools will fulfill the expected improvement in the outputs of the organization. Lean is defined as “ providing a value-based scope of work and effective Master Production Schedule (MPS) and cost estimates; of the highest quality at the least possible cost” The execution of MPS at a design location is done by taking a look-ahead plan and extracting little necessary work parts from it.
According to the Lean design implemention as a key to success in the manufacture of Japanese cars. Its concept includes different systems of production that have in common the fundamental principles of system responsiveness and reduction of waste in order to become better, JIT, good communication within the value stream, improving continuously, seek for best quality from the beginning, as well as the idea that processes should start from the right place to finish at the right destination. The main purpose of lean design is facilitation of work steps that create value and elimination of steps that do not add any value, for example, fast cycle times increasing wastage The lean design system has changed the craft production was narrowly concentrating on productivity of workers and mass production’s concentration on a machine, which led to the application this philosophy in design and other industries.
Implementation in the production sector of lean design and lean production nature compared with the prevalent practice. Although the design industry was not accepting of a lot of production concepts on grounds that production is different, lean design principles and lean designs are concepts that have their origin in production to enable concern personnel to develop fresh philosophy pertaining to management of production projects. The purpose is the pursuance of perfection, waste reduction, and value maximization. The definition of waste in both production and production contexts falls under seven categories: unnecessary movement and motions of people, unnecessary delivery and movement of equipment and materials, excess inventory, over- production, over-processing, delays, and errors (defects). The VA (value added) aspect in the process of production is monitored in lean construction along with the NVA (non-value added elements such errors, delay and flow. The ultimate rule for design improvement is to focus on every activity for production and work towards cost and time reduction for each step.
Since production design management and technology are the two key factors that determine the progress of Toyota design industry, I will also make sure that technology is continuously applied to improve the design and efficiency of the tasks undertaken. However, there has been no tangible improvement seen. Another reason which has led to the decline of production in Toyota industry is that the application of the said new design technologies has proved to the contrary that instead of reducing the production costs, it has increased. Although this design technology has improved the efficiency of drawing, it cannot reduce the errors in designing. This escalates and bringing another action. Redoing the work leading to challenges to managers whose aims is reducing production costs. Though cost reduction and quality production is the main aim, the said new design technologies cannot support the implementation of D/B projects.
The applications of these design technologies are contradicting the concepts of improving efficiency in Toyota industry. To achieve this, I will adhere to lean methods which provide better customer satisfaction and being economically accepted. I will apply the Lean principles to design in order to maximize value and to reduce waste. As i lean method is applied, performance will improve as compared to other models. Applying lean design technique in Toyota production industry has been proved to reduce and even eliminate the wastes and increases the firm’s profits. To determine the effectiveness of this model, methodologies used included interviews and distribution of questionnaires and direct interviews were carried out. It was then evaluated and found to be most effective tool. Lean planner on the other hand was found to be also more effective since it help in visualizing the likely outcomes of the overall production. Though these models are effective, the concerned personnel needed to adapt to these tool for full effectiveness to be realized.
To evaluate the effectiveness of these design methods, I will apply alternative methods which I can use to develop new standards for design while maintaining the operation. These lean method evaluates the production elements such as huddle meetings, first-run studies, five S’s; and fail safe for Production process reengineering framework and corresponding methodologies uses this principles and simulation methods to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of these techniques. The aim of simulating is to make it easier to quantify and assess the effectiveness and efficiency of these techniques. Proposed design reengineering framework was useful and workable in streamlining the design process for improved production in Toyota industry.
I will make things differentiated from mass and craft forms of production by the objectives and technique and to optimizing performance of the production system against a standard of perfection to meet unique customer requirements by use of Lean production design aims at designing and making things. To meet these unique requirements, I will use a criteria for success and produce strategies for achieving and directing the schedule for economical.
In the recent past, the new design philosophy which is known included world class manufacturing using lean production. This philosophy was practiced partially by automotive production companies. These new design techniques have led to shifts in new production processes to enhance product development. The adaptation of lean technique in the production of Toyota has resulted in management system consisting of a transformation which is the main task of converting the raw materials into a final product. Flow is another component which involves the flow of processes from one stage to another and value generation in which it deals with the final product branding.
These components has led to the development of a design technique; the lean design. Managing the production process under this new developed technique, the organization’s objectives are clear from designing to delivery and the main tasks are aimed at maximizing the organization’s performance to achieve the customer desire. This technique also designs a process for the production and applying the controls throughout the development process. Main objective of these lean model is ought to be understood so that the effects of dependence and value chains are followed. To achieve this, a criterion for successful production is set and controlling all the tasks to only work towards achieving the set goals.
To handle production design problems, I will determine the implementation of lean ideal by identifying the source of wastes and reducing the same as classified under lean this industry and also by Examining general perceptions of the construction and design industry with the lean principles of practices. This can do trough Examining the relationship between lean construction and performance improvement programs in construction organizations and also by Analyzing the characteristics of successful performance improvement programs then developing a model that identify three critical elements as Time spent and Improvement perspective and goals.
The lean ideal is to provide a custom product exactly fit for purpose and delivered instantly with no waste to the subsequent actions that may be necessary in order for projects to pursue that ideal. The ability of individuals and organizations to follow this process will vary with position and circumstances to the extent possible. The principles to be implemented on the project include Selecting of suppliers who are willing to adopt lean project delivery and to structure the project organization to allow money to move in pursuit of the best project-level returns. Furthermore define and align project scope, budget, and schedule, Explore adaptation and development of methods to Make design decisions with clear alternatives against stated criteria. Practicing production control, in accordance with lean principles, is done by building quality and safety into projects and Implementing the JIT and multi-organizational processes after site demand. Evaluations and planning on process that transform materials is also an important principle.
Design management suffers many problems which need to be solved. As a result, the construction industry is overwhelmed by delay leading to cost and time overrun. Problems associated with management should be understood, and efforts need to be directed toward developing solutions and more efficient methods of operation. Presence of wastes in Toyota production industry has affected the performance negatively. Ways to rectify this have to be undertaken. Waste prevention in production is essential because they enable some operational costs be prevented resulting to conditions of implement decentralized control.
Anything that adds no value to the product is a waste. Wastes are either incurred by equipment or personnel and are more difficult to be measured because the optimal efficiency is not always known. Activities leading to losses can be Value adding activities which convert materials and information in the search to meet client’s requirements or Non-value adding activities which include resources like time and consume space without adding value to the product. Waste in Toyota construction industry has been the subject of several projects in recent years. Studies tend to focus on the waste of materials which are only one of the resources involved in the design process.
Reports on production wastes impacts show that these wastes can be reduced by following the certain plan set designs about prevention. Wastes can be Production that had been carried out as Overproduction of a quantity greater than required or earlier than necessary causing waste of materials, as well as working hours and equipment usage. Exchange and execution of simple tasks by an overqualified worker by using sophisticated instead of simple one also leading to wastes. Waiting time caused by lack of synchronization and leveling of material flows and pace of work by different groups. Equipment is also another cause of waste.
This might be caused by inadequate equipment and ineffective work methods. Studies has summarized lean thinking into eleven principles which reduce the share of non-value adding activities and results in Increase of output value through systematic consideration of customer requirements and Reducing variability and time cycle by minimizing the number of steps, parts and linkages to Increase output flexibility. To Increase process transparency, the company need to focus control on the complete process aimed at Build continuous improvement into the process. Lean designing is using the same principles as lean production to reduce waste and increase the productivity and effectiveness of construction work.
However, the most important determinants of production designs are supposed to be a workflow reliability and labor flow. Though lean designing has changed the traditional view of the project as transformation and embraced the concept of flow and value generation. It has similarly shared the same objectives of lean production. Lean construction is composed of: Concurrent Engineering which is described as parallel execution of various tasks by multidisciplinary teams with the goal of obtaining most favorable products concerning productivity. To do these, scheduling could be recovered by using network analysis (CPM and PERT).The important planning parameters for scheduling concurrent activities are lead time, quantity, and risk under ambiguity. This method is focusing on the team efforts including communication and information sharing as the key for discovering new ideas. The important planning parameters for scheduling concurrent activities are lead time, quantity, and risk under ambiguity. This method is focusing on the team efforts including communication and information sharing as the key for discovering new ideas.
I will consider using Last planner method because it consists of people responsible for production design unit control, meaning completion of individual tasks at the operational level. It necessitates workflow control trough ascertaining the stream of supply, design, and installation n throughout production units. To do this, look-ahead schedule, which determines the progression and rate of work can be used. It carves up the master schedule into many packages each specifying the techniques of checking capacity, execution and establishes a stockpile of standing by the work. Daily huddle meetings provide a platform for the team members to share their views and to share what has been achieved, at the same time, discuss problems they are facing during the production process. Kanban strategy is grounded on key components like the marketplace and suppliers. Way of collection and inventory management system.
Marketplaces are site warehouse that allocate different materials and small tools to the workers. While satellite stores are situated on the site, where they get products from marketplaces, Kanban strategy is the concept of Just in Time. And normally starts with open doors, so that the site can pull materials from the supplier up to certain perimeters. Subsequently, the material requested from suppliers arrives at market, and products are later on picked from the stores, which are usually managed by recorded points. Plan Conditions and Work Environment to introduce a plan of health and safety into the project execution. These safety activities can generate limitations for scheduled tasks, and that is why it should be embraced as a part of assignments. All safety practices are therefore amalgamated in short-term planning then analyzed through daily feedback from crew and subcontractors.
Quality Management Tools: which are based on the change from conformance based quality to the quality at the source. A point system is normally employed to evaluate the execution of planned controls, which will help workers to follow planned controls instead of quality corrections. Visual Inspection shows the uneven nature of the construction and leads to the application of visual tools for material, work and information flow, etc. Identification of materials can accelerate repetitive processes and diminishes the risk of selecting the wrong product. Progress charts and schedules can implement the dedication to the completion of tasks. Information and technology can also improve the communication between a decision maker and execute, and can accelerate the process as well. In Lean Construction, planning and control are considered to be complementary and dynamic processes maintained during the course of the project.
Planning defines the criteria and creates strategies required to reach project objectives, control makes sure that each event will occur following the planned sequence. Re-planning must be done when the previously established sequences are no longer applicable or convenient. Feedback facilitates learning when the events do not occur as planned. Last Planner System has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for the management of production process, and continuous monitoring of the planning efficiency, to assist in developing foresight, smoothing workflow variations, and reducing/removing uncertainties plaguing construction processes. It comprises of controls achieved trough look-ahead process while production unit control is accomplished primarily through weekly work planning.
Last Planner System aims to shift the focus of control from the workers to the flow of work that links them together. The two main objectives of LPS are to make better assignments to direct workers through continuous learning and corrective action and to cause the work to flow across production units in the best achievable sequence and rate. Companies utilizing the LPS have been able to maintain project on time and to budget, as well as to have a stress-free production planning and control process. Benefits attributed to LPS implementation are smooth workflow, predictable work plans, reduced cost, reduced time of project delivery, improved productivity, and greater collaboration with field personnel and subcontractors. A reliable assignment, one that gets done at the required time, determines what will be done, after considering both what should from higher-level schedules and what can be done based on the situation at hand. Assignments are likely to get done when they are well defined, resource sound, in the right sequence, and within the capacity of the crew.
The last planner’s job is to make certain task in the assignment that meets these criteria and to reject assignments that do not. Last planners can reasonably commit to completing the tasks on weekly work plans that meet these criteria. Production software should stipulate what should be done, what can be done, and what will be done; then, they compare what was done to improve planning. Last Planner System provides quantitative data that demonstrated how using the LPS method reduced and eliminated the variation for the mechanical contractor involved in the construction project. Also, they used a risk assessment matrix as a new and effective means of prioritizing which causes of variation should be targeted first for reduction. To investigate the theories, introduction of concepts of management based empirical evidence depicts appropriate ways of managing works and operation level where processes are highly interdependent. Performance improvement process model shows the key factors that determine the success of the process. Development of ways to improve production includes improvement time with skills of an individual with an aim to achieve the goals of the organization. Time Spent on Production reduces the Time spent on improvement while Work Load and Project Pressures increase production time.
Increasing time on marketing increasing time Spent on Production increases the Organizational Performance. This illustrates the managerial dilemma between Today Performance versus Future Performance. Management Support is indicated by Personal involvement in improvement efforts and Acknowledging and rewarding the efforts and successes. In addition, hiring employees who can contribute to the improvement of evaluating middle management is essential. Employee Motivation increases Time spent on improvement. In every organization having a typically small percentage of employees who are actively looking for ways to improve. Some willing to explore new techniques should be acknowledged and rewarded leading to a positive outcome.
Due to an urge to improve, time frame between organizational performance and desired goal performance. This performance has lead to decrease in an urge to improve. When good market is achieved, work capacity and managers urge for improvement also decreases. Furthermore,if a market has high demand, process performance reduces (Plenert, 2007).Improved results is viewed by the organization to have achieved their goal, leading to reduction in performance. Favorable markets increases the performance leading to high profits making managers to view that there is no need for improvement. Furthermore, when there is a very high demand, the budget will also be high causing reduction for improvements need. An urge to improve develops an urge to fill the gap between the goals of the organization and the tasks which needs to be performed. Due to this, manager’s behavior affects the general perspective of the production process. However, an urge to improve leads to generation of development ideas. The mechanisms for learning can be grouped in three categories namely; learning from Experience: where one analyze the present tasks performed either in the office or at the field to check if there is any need for reviewing. To handle this, methods used include systematic approach and Gathering Intelligence (Ofori, & Lean, n.d). This will aid in identification of any perceived improvement by closely examining the environment which includes examining the technologies used and methods moreover, Learning through Experimentation which includes the usage of new untested methods and techniques. These could be production technologies, management methods, new information systems, incentives systems, etc.
Two important issues related to experimentation are: The extent that management supports risk taking otherwise, no real risks will be taken and How to bring it into control. Challenges of this include the production experiment which may be essential for conducting such experiments. In applying these techniques, the problem identification and improvement of the organizations to figure out such depends highly on the skills required. Every performance improvement process includes Acquiring information, when the organization collects measurements, observations, and data such as statistical data of defects, market data, and productivity data and Interpreting information, when the organization analyzes data to understand what it means, and what are the cause-effect relationships at work, and what are the real causes of observed data then applying the collected data during the development and implementation of such proposals by the organization. The organization will definitely require some knowledge to interpret the meaning of the process proposed as well as the analytical skills for effective changes. Process Analysis Skills and Root Cause Analysis are essential in order to discover the key factors affecting performance, and develop effective interventions.
Without such skills, solutions tend to address symptoms near the problem, rather than root causes. Management Support is essential for the development of Improvement skills and Mechanisms as they provide the resources for development of Improvement skills through internal training or external experts and forums for intelligence gathering, after action reviews, and process analysis. Furthermore, experimentation directly depends on the extent that management supports risk taking.
The term Perspective refers to whether the improvement process is Result-focused or Process-focused. The Critical Success Factors are an example of a Result-focused approach. Critical Success Factors are those result areas such as Schedule, Safety, Estimating, Quality, Cost, and Change Management that directly affect the performance of the organization. TQM and Lean design are (Process-focused). The different focus of the improvement process has important implications for the direction of improvement efforts as it leads to the following differences. Different goals regarding what the improvement teams are trying to accomplish. Result-based goals are typically oriented toward customer expectations. Quality goal may be Zero Punch list at time of completion result-focused versus Eliminate Defects and Rework Process-focused. Result-focused goals and process-focused goals are both needed, but at different organizational levels. At the strategic level, management needs to establish result-focused strategic improvement goals in the areas that are critical for competitiveness such as schedule and cost reduction and safety and quality improvement. But in order to meet the strategic improvement goals, the improvement efforts need to focus on the production processes. Traditional management systems do not focus on production processes, but are result-oriented. However, a results attitude emphasizes fixing problems and fighting fires, rather than preventing problems, planning and learning. The key point is that result-focused goals emphasize results with or without process improvement. Such goals have limited effect on Perceived Need for Improvement when the results are satisfactory. On the other hand, process-focused goals continue to drive process improvement even if project results are satisfactory. It was suggested that management must focus on process improvement first and results second. The simple truth is that when there is no explicit focus on the process, the direction of improvement efforts is determined by the prevailing mental models of the participants. The prevailing perspective in production considers project work as a collection of activities rather than a flow . People who hold this perspective believe Sources of the problems are outside the process the owner makes changes or adds scope, the design is incomplete, the subcontractors were late, did not provide manpower when needed, and Performance problems are typically attributed to individual factors, such as responsibility, motivation, and skills, rather than systemic . Delivering a project is just like skinning a cat. There are thousand ways to do it, all pretty much the same. Process-focused approaches such as TQM and lean production emphasize both the components of the process and the interdependencies between components of the complex production system. Sources of the problems are inside the process interdependence and variation, and the incentives, behaviors, and work rules that generate and propagate them.
Consequently, different perspectives lead to different directions of improvement efforts. In other words, the definition of the problem drives the solutions. Duration of the time spent in improving one skills and mechanism, the goals of an organization will amount to its achievement. Proposals mainly points out the tasks to be performed and who will be accountable to such. Applying this in an organization leads to more allocation of responsibility and ensuring accountability to project personnel in identification of defects, or increasing their general hardwork.Workers level of skills should also be evaluated so that the efficiency in use of organizations production machinery is achieved. These proposals are meant to allow for effective and efficient work is done. On the contrary, process-focused efforts emphasize the interdependencies between process participants, requirements and the work processes themselves (Magee, 2007). This leads to very different solutions. Other processes such as result based meant to improve the efforts of the workers end up increasing the production wastes. It also leads to diverge methods aimed at improving the general production. Result focus technique is not highly applicable since it doesn’t emphasize so much in interdependence between the workers which is the main task in achieving a set objective realization of the organizations goals. Problem Complexity reduces the act of improvement because skills and mechanisms applied are the same. A challenge is dealing with problem complexity. Simple problems can be solved using simple methods. An example of simple problem is performing a simple routine task. The main factors that affect the improvement of the processes are the skills of the workers in using equipments to carry out these tasks. The resulting reactions to these method changes are the increase of the production units in the organization. Increase in these units increases the processes which in turn increases costs. It will also lead to complicated processes which requires cross organizational interactions (Karthi, Devadasan, & Murugesh, 2011). These cross organizational leads to sequential management control mechanisms leading to complex processes which focus on cross-organizational efforts. As a result, as problem complexity increases, it becomes harder to achieve improvement results. Improvement Results increase Organizational Performance although consuming a lot of time.
Employee’s motivation is also as a result of improvement in production and marketing results. This in turn led to spending more time on improvement. This creates a positive feedback loop. On the other hand, when there is an increase in performance of an organization, the tasks carried out typically increases as well due to continuous processes. In contradiction, an urge for improvement need decreases because a lot of time is spend on production leading to decline in improvement. However, the room for improvement diminishes as all efforts are directed to work to increase the production. This in turn leads to problem complexity because of the drop in performance triggering a need to be resolved again. To resolve this, training and motivation should be commenced and directed to the concerned workers. The overall effects is the increase in efforts to maintain the organizational performance .This whole exercise is very costly ,cheaper means can be accomplished by using work processes rather than people or inspections they can be sustained with fewer efforts.
In Conclusion, This report has confirmed that the determination and design implementation of lean ideal and identification of wastes and ways of reducing it are the primary objectives of the production organization using lean integration system. The general perceptions of the organization’s design principles are examined to determine ways of reducing and eliminating of wastes as classified under development of Last Planner System as a technique of lean construction implementation and to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing last planner to increase plan reliability. Examining of the organizations performance and production is also done to allow for analyzing of successful performance improvement programs and developing a model that identifies three critical components which include the duration of time taken while improving the performance. Also the skills of workers and the goals of the production industry. Different ways to structure improvement program outcome focused such as Critical Success Factors and process-focused. This report has proposed a dynamic model of performance improvement process. The model examined the factors affecting the process and their interactions. The report proposed that Direction of the improvement effort is strongly influenced by the structure and goals and Result-focused programs have limited ability to address complex systemic problems.
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