Lab reports on effects of artificial selection of organisms such as Escherichia coli analyze data recorded from test statistics of artificial selection experiments for resistance to antibiotics such as Ampicillin.

The Effects of Artificial Selection of Escherichia coli bacteria for Resistance to Ampicillin antibiotic.
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Abstract
Lab reports on effects of artificial selection of organisms such as Escherichia coli analyze data recorded from test statistics of artificial selection experiments for resistance to antibiotics such as Ampicillin. This report use statistics to interpret the size of the control line zones of inhibition (ZOI) in three weeks. It delves into the correlation between ampicillin antibiotic and the resistances of Escherichia coli. The purpose of the experiment is to test whether artificial selection of Escherichia Coli exposed to ampicillin antibiotic in three weeks increases the degree of antibiotic resistance. This is based on the assumption that the resistance of Escherichia Coli would increase within the three weeks and thus grows close towards the ampicillin, thereby resulting to a reduced zone of inhibition (ZOI)
In conducting the experiment, a Petri dish containing Escherichia coli was placed in a 10mg sensitive diffusion disks. Multiple colonies were plated and grown. A flame sterilized inoculation was used to select the E coli bacteria along the edge of the ZOI in the ampicillin diffusion disk for the first experiment. Another group was plated from bacteria away from the antibiotic as the control replicate. In the control replicate, a flame sterilized inoculation loop was used to take a short streak of E coli from the center of the Petri dish. Inoculated culture tubes were then placed in a 370 of shaking bath water.
The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate how Escherichia coli evolves during treatment with antibiotics such as ampicillin commonly used in the treatment of Escherichia coli for a bacterial patient. This experiment is critically important in informing a pharmaceutical understanding of how Escherichia coli evolve and how to combat it. It is also a viable theory that proves how humans selection and breeding traits into the bacteria Escherichia coli over a period of time
It was observed that, Escherichia coli bacteria had no ability to effectively adapt to Ampicillin, and did not develop any form of antibiotic resistance over a period of time. The final ZOI measurements in the selection group ranged from 19.75 to 20.1 mm. This demonstrated a dismal change from the initial ZOI measurements that ranged from 20.3 to 20.1 mm. The final selection and control’s zones of inhibitions remained relatively similar thus demonstrating that there was no development of antibiotic resistance.
Introduction
Conducting artificial selection of Escherichia Coli through exposure to the antibiotic such as ampicillin requires accurately recorded data from artificial selection experiments. The longevity of artificial selection for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is exemplified through accurately recorded artificial selection experiments. Lab report analyzes data recorded from the test statistics of artificial selection experiments and uses the statistics to interpret the size of the control line zones of inhibition (ZOI) in three weeks. It is observed that there is the same change in ZOI over a period of three weeks. Conducting artificial selection of Escherichia Coli by exposing the antibiotic such as ampicillin
Escherichia coli is a bacteria that causes a range of human illness such as mostly intestinal associated diseases. A 2011 research on Escherichia coli states that E coli bacteria quickly adapt to new environmental conditions. This makes it ideal for the scientific lab experiment. E. coli is also has a bacterial resistance to Ampicillin that is heritable. As an antibiotic, the resistance of Ampicillin’s is heritable via genes such as B-lactamase and glutamine decarboxylase (Fonda, 2013). It is imperative to note that when glutamine decarboxylase is over expressed it provides resistance. Glutamine decarboxylase does not, however, affect the resistance of bacteria when it is expressed normally (Fonda, 2013). The allele frequencies for Glutamine decarboxylase and Blactamase genes can change as they pass on through reproduction.
According to a study on Journal of Biotechnology, ampicillin has the ability to create selective pressure on Escherichia coli bacteria. They then select the bacteria approximate to the ampicillin by selecting more resistant Escherichia coli bacteria so as to breed younger bacteria with similar resistance.
Methods
The Artificial Selection of Escherichia coli experiment was conducted by growing colonies of the bacteria E. coli, by an aseptic technique. Muller-Hinton agar’s plates were used to grow three consecutive generations of bacteria, on two selection plates and a control plate. Ampicillin tablets were placed in each of the three plates, the three plates build a zone of inhibition. A control experiment was created by placing bacteria at the edge of the Petri dishes. Being far from the antibiotic meant that the bacteria were least affected by ampicillin.
Selection was made at the edges of the ZOI, on bacteria close to antibiotic tablets. Bacteria was later cultured at 370C and allowed to incubate for twenty hour period. They were later removed from the water bath and placed in a refrigerator in 40 C. After refrigeration, the bacteria were later cultured plated onto the agar plate and measured. Zones of inhibition were measured after 24 hours of the plating on the Petri dish.
The experiment was conducted within a time limit of three weeks. The entire generation for the ZOI was measured on visually wide parts. Final data for the lab was gathered after the measurement of Petri dishes per week of control and selection. Data was then averaged to arrive at an average for the three weeks. Subsequently, the data allowed for calculation of the standard deviation to demonstrate precision in results acquired. Results were then graphed as shown above. ANOVA test used to test the results were by chance or because of the Artificial Selection of Escherichia coli experiment.
Results
There is a dismal variance between selected and control experiment. The final results show that selection’s zone has a larger value compared to control. Figure one indicates an increase in ZOI measurement of approximately 2 mm. The small change creates a greater P-value compared to a value of 0.06, accruing from the varying degrees of freedom of at 22. The .737 is the P-value for this experiment. This is greater compared to the target value. Bars demonstrate minimal variance statistical deviation in the average data.
To confirm the outcome, the results are compared to results from to other groups who conducted an identical experiment within a similar time period and method. Data from other groups is similar to data for this experiment. Data from other groups indicates similar results like in this experiment. The data collected is therefore accurate

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Discussion
Escherichia coli bacteria grows close to the antibiotic ampicillin for preceding weeks thus reduces ZOI with time. It is expected that bacteria with the higher expression of the genes are selected for resistance, based on the assumption that they live closer to ampicillin, bacteria demonstrate a higher chance of expressing the genes. Based on the above hypothesis, the ZOI around the antibiotic decreases, as the bacterium increases its resistant to Ampicillin. This experiment offers critical insights into to how bacteria inherit traits and reproduces (Chattopadhyay and Sokurenko, 2013)
Our group observed similar changes in ZOI overtime on the entire lab section. The data collected has been used to create a line graph for the three weeks to compare the selected and control lines. They have an error bar equal to 1 standard deviation.

Figure 1: A Graph of the three weeks of ZOI measurements for all Groups.
The ZOI measurements in the selection ranged between 19.75 and 20.1mm. They demonstrated dismal variance from the initial ZOI measurements that ranged from 20.3 to 20.1 mm. The final selection and control’s zones of inhibitions remained relatively similar thus demonstrating that Escherichia coli bacteria did not develop antibiotic resistance.

Figure # 3 Bar Graph of three week averages
Conclusion
There is no sufficient difference to prove the hypothesis. It is therefore sufficient to state that Escherichia coli cannot be artificially selected for resistance. The dismal rise evident in the graph, indicate an insignificant increase from the hypothesis to and cannot, therefore, be used predict a decline in ZOI. In this context, it could possibly mean that artificial selection is impossible for Escherichia coli. The study may support the idea that ampicillin is a viable drug that may continually be used in the treatment of Escherichia coli related bacterial infections. Through this experiment, pharmaceutical has established that there is minimal risk of resistance in the breeding of Escherichia coli (Eriksson & Bolme, 2009)

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References
Chattopadhyay, S., & Sokurenko, E. V. (2013). Evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Escherichia colis.
Eriksson, M., & Bolme, P. (2009). The Oral Absorption of Ampicillin, Pivampicillin and Amoxycillin in Infants and Children. Acta Pharmacologica Toxicologica.
Fonda, M. L. (2013). [2] l-Glutamate decarboxylase from bacteria. Glutamate, Glutamine, Glutathione, and Related Compounds Methods in Enzymology.
Pearson’s Chi-Square, T-Test, and ANOVA. (2013). Practical Statistics: A Quick and Easy Guide to IBM® SPSS® Statistics, STATA, and Other Statistical Software.
Zavoianu, R., Birjega, R., Pavel, O. D., Cruceanu, A., & Paduraru, C. (2008). Ampicillin release from hydrotalcite-supported ampicillin drugs—Effect of Mg/Al ratio. Journal of Biotechnology.

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