Summary of the article
The article by Maclnnis, J. B titled, “Living under the sea” focuses on the health effects on humans when they temporarily live below the sea level. The piece reported the findings and observations of several studies conducted on divers who managed to stay at below the under the sea level exposed to elements. The article states that divers suffer from the effects of reduced pressure when they come up to the surface of the sea and as a result decompression must be carried out gradually. Maclnnis (2015) also observed that when a diver spends more than twenty-four below the water surface, the cells in the body get packed full of helium and hydrogen gases hence the body stops absorbing more gas. The author further reports that other factors preventing divers from spending more time in the sea to explore the floor of the sea include reduced visibility, lightheadedness, headaches, and the dangers lurking at the contours of the unexplored sea floor.
Maclnnis (2015) also noted that there is a relationship between the depth a diver can drop to and the effectiveness of the breathing equipment. The author claims that oxygen levels in the breathing equipment should be regulated to avoid endangering the life of the diver. The author further noted that gases contained in the divers breathable gas tank exhibits different properties when exposed to pressure. Maclnnis (2015) claims that nitrogen affects the diver’s ability to evaluate his surroundings and plan the course of action while helium can cause hypothermia and impairs diver’s ability to communicate. Finally, the author noted that experiments carried out in simulation chambers on land indicate that combining oxygen and neon can offer the best chance to divers in deep sea exploration. Also, the investigations revealed that it is possible to carry out regular physical and psychological work at depths of up to 650 feet under the sea.
The article by Maclnnis is full of relevant information regarding the ability of man to live and work in a different environment apart from the dry land. The challenges and successes reported in the article accurately capture the progress human being has made using knowledge gained in physics to explore and live in the ocean. The author illustrated how fluids act while a force applies on it and the effects it has on the subject. The article also accurately describes the behavior of different fluids under different stress levels. In my opinion, the research article is well written, and the author explored real-life situations how physics comes into play in nature and why human beings must learn to master it for survival.
Fluid dynamic terminologies
Fluids change shape when subjected to pressure, since gases and liquid exhibit this property they are regarded as fluids. Fluid dynamics expression referred to in the article are density, stress, and fluid flow dimensions. Fluid flow measurements are tools used to regulate the flow of fluids from one point to the other. In diving, the amount of gas that flows from the cylinder to the regulator and finally to the diver’s lungs must be measured to avoid exposing the diver to harm. Tools used to regulate the flow of gas from the container to the human body while diving is the regulator whose primary function is to reduce the pressure of gas outflow from the cylinder to match with the pressure in the lungs to allow the diver to breathe underwater.
Density is the weight of the fluid for every volume. In water density increases with the depth. It includes the mass of the gas carried by the diver. It becomes more burdensome as the diver drops deeper into the ocean. High density requires the diver to use more energy to breathe that is why according to Maclnnis (2015) divers are unable to drop beyond certain depth due to the difficulty they will experience in breathing. Pressure is a force exerted on each area. Pressure affects the environment that the diver operates in a while under water. The force acting on the water and the pressure inside the body of the diver must be regulated to balance them and allow the diver to operate normally. According to Maclnnis (2015, p. 40) pressure increases at 14.7 psi for ten meters that the diver will drop to below the surface of the sea. Atmospheric pressure is the force applied by the earth’s atmosphere on the surface of the water. Atmospheric pressure reduces with .elevation above sea level. On the other hand, liquid pressure is the force exerted by the pool on objects as it drops down into the water. The force emanates from the water below supporting the waters above it. Hence the difference between the atmospheric pressure and liquid pressure lies in the item exerting the force
Various gas laws can be applied to different situations described in the article. Dalton’s law can be used to determine the appropriate amount of oxygen a diver can inhale at certain depth during diving to prevent cases of lightheadedness and headaches when oxygen turns harmful in the sea environment. Boyles law can be used to regulate the pressure in the outside environment and lungs as the diver drops deeper under water. Boyles law can be used to calculate the amount of breathable air needed when ascending or descending the depths of the sea.
In conclusion, the article is a perfect example of how knowledge of physics can be applied to conquer nature. The article brings to the fore how pressure and density can be regulated to enable human beings explore the sea. Boyles’ law and Dalton’s law can be applied to diving to safeguard the life of the diver
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MacInnis, J. B. (2015). Living under the sea. Journal of Diving History, 23(85), 40-43. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=112931398&site=ehost-live&scope=site
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