The effect of L-and D-tyrosine/tryptophan
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Silver nanoparticles (AuNPs) are common nonmaterial in commercial products, but there is supporting evidence on the toxicity of AuNPs on cells. Due to the unique features, gold nanoparticles are used in various biological applications (Liu et al. 2014). There is no adequate information on their toxicity when these elements come into contact with natural system (Xiao et al. 2016). Currently, the nanomaterial is of great interest in a wide range of scientific fields since they have significant applications in different ways. Nanoparticles have perfect biological properties which them suitable for medicinal purposes. The interaction of nanoparticles and cellular proteins can be useful in the development of medical and pharmaceutical materials.
Toxicological studies suggest that AuNPs may have adverse health effects. The studies show that AuNPs can penetrate unusually deep into the skin and major pathway of AuNPs is mediated by endocytosis and phagocytosis (Fredman et al. 2015). Studies have reported that non-toxicity of AuNPs and others have described the toxic effect on cells. The result of 34 nm AuNps may differ in concentration and stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, but greater concentration may be toxic (Ren et al. 2017). Research has shown that AuNP sizes correlate with the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of antibody. It is documented that drugs that have AuNPs don’t influence the production of cytokines (Johnstone, Suntharalingam & Lippard 2016). The drugs have inflammatory activities, and they accelerate cutaneous healing through antioxidant effects. Interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems has become a significant area of research (El-Sherbiny et al. 2017). AuNPs can exert anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF and anti-angiogenic activity.
An ideal cure for inflammatory diseases is lacking, and patients are treated with agents that inhibit the immune-inflammatory cascade at different levels (Kahn, Cooper & Del Prato 2014). Nanotechnology comprises the manipulation of particles with dimensions within the nanometer range (Taylor 2015). Most of the diagnostic labs make use of tissue culture to isolate the virus and serological approaches to establish the identity of the DENV isolate (Nishimura et al. 2014). It is a process that takes a considerable amount of time whereby the clinical and epidemiological information is crucial for the implementation of treatment and control measures (Goldstein, Brameld & Verner 2015). The reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for amplification of target nucleic acid provides a sensitive method for DENV detection.
Advances in development in the development of fluorophores and nucleotide-labeling have established the need for post-amplification needed by conventional RT-PCR and provides a capability to conduct real-time PCR in routine diagnosis (Du & Stenzel, 2016). The basic concern regarding the false-negative outcome as a result of a mismatch in sequences between the amplimer and probe has not been resolved (Mier et al. 2014). Nanoparticles may be organic or inorganic, and they can be produced through conventional physical and chemical methods or modern green synthesis (Zhao et al. 2014). Several chemical, physical and biological synthetic methods have been developed to obtain nanoparticles which vary in size and shape (Ling et al. 2014). Most of the ways are in development stages and issues experienced have to do with the stability and aggregation of nanoparticles.
To sum up, Due to the unique features there has been significant interest among researchers on the properties and other diverse areas like medicine, catalysis, textile and bioengineering sciences. The exposure route for AgNPs usually happens through ingestion, inhalation or maybe demand contact. AgNPs is believed to have access to systemic circulation through skin openings when we consume products containing AgNP. Ag is a toxic metal for the marine systems, and the silver ion is the most poisonous silver species that can cause intracellular accumulation in phytoplankton. The information until now is not entirely clear whether AgNPs –induced neuroinflammation as the changes in gene expression related disorders like the AD.
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