Aircraft Specification



Engineering Research Preparation



Task 2
 I confirm that I have read, understood and followed the guidelines for assignment submission and presentation on page 2 of this cover sheet.
 I confirm that I have read, understood and followed the advice in my Subject Outline about assessment requirements.
 I understand that if this assignment is submitted after the due date it may incur a penalty for lateness unless I have previously had an extension of time approved and have attached the written confirmation of this extension.

Declaration of Originality: The work contained in this assignment, other than that specifically attributed to another source, is that of the author(s) and has not been previously submitted for assessment. I understand that, should this declaration be found to be false, disciplinary action could be taken and penalties imposed in accordance with University policy and rules. In the statement below, I have indicated the extent to which I have collaborated with others, whom I have named.

Statement of Collaboration:

Signature of Student(s) Date 14th Jan 2018

Project Management Plan Guidance
1. Scope of the project 3
1.2. Procedures 3
i. Experienced engineers. 4
ii. Aircraft Specification 4
iii. 3D Designs 5
iv. Structural design and details of construction 5
v. Prototype Fabrication 5
vi. Airplane performance, stability, and structural integrity 5
2. Process and timeline 5
2.1. Gantt chart 8
3. Communication Plan 8
3.1. Communication Plan Chart. 9
4. Bibliography 10

1. Scope of the project
The design of any complex device or vehicle generally involves the utilization of knowledge from diverse domains or fields in order to arrive at a product which will satisfy all the requirements needed (Proctor & Van Zandt, 2018). These requirements go from functional aspects to operational safety and cost. An aircraft wing is a very important component of the airplane. They generate lift once the airplane moves forward at high speed. For this reason, any aircraft manufacturing company needs to be keen on selecting the best materials to design an aircraft’s wing. The materials recommended need to meet an array of properties which include: high corrosion resistance, specific weight, good elasticity and great strength. Each of these mentioned materials must support different loads or different weights of the aircraft and thus he appropriate material needs to be chosen (Katunin, Dragan & Dziendzikowski, 2015). We also need to design the core of the aircraft’s wing. The core of the wing is the area of low stress, and the best aircraft designs recommend that strength is concentrated in the areas of high stress (skin of the wing). For this reason, the core of the wing shall be made up of lightweight materials. To accomplish all these, Knowledge will be drawn from areas like propulsion systems, manufacturing techniques, structures, and aerodynamics. This will be the first milestone in the design and analysis of multi-functional sandwich panels. The aforementioned processes will ensure that sandwich panels are appropriate for use in the design of aircraft wings.
1.2. Procedures
It is evident that the general design of an airplane is a very complex engineering task. It incorporates the following procedures:
• Finding and recruiting experienced and well-performing engineers who have been in the engineering industry for a long time.
• Pulling out the specification of the aircraft that needs to be built, then choose the type and find out its geometric parameters.
• Coming up with 3D prints for the wing design
• Coming up with a structural design and computing the details of construction.
• The prototype is fabricated.
• Determine the performance of the airplane, its structural integrity, and its stability.

i. Experienced engineers.
Awarding contracts to well-experienced personnel in this project is a very critical step. If this is not done, an incomplete or defect aircraft may be developed. This may happen even if the inefficient engineers are provided with the correct materials and tools for design. We must, therefore, ensure that we have engineers who have worked on several other similar projects in the past and can be able to work as a team to accomplish our main objective with minimal supervision.
ii. Aircraft Specification
The specification of the aircraft to be built must be established. This is in relation to its size, the type of load it will be carrying, and the environmental conditions of the region the aircraft will be flying most of the time. It is in this section that we must know the type of wings to be constructed for the aircraft. Will the aircraft have rotational wings or still wings? Rotational wings will want the design team comes up with lighter versions of the wings as compared to still wings (Benyahia, Albedah & Bouiadjra, 2014).
iii. 3D Designs
In this section, we need to design the 3D prototype for the core and skin of the aircraft wings. Over the past decades, the aviation industry has been using 3D printing technology since it significantly helps in reducing the weight of aircrafts whilst increasing the overall efficiency of construction and make improved customizations. 3D printing will thus help to boost efficiency and safe on money.
iv. Structural design and details of construction
Structural design is the methodological inquiry of the strength, rigidity, and the stability of structures to be utilized in designing the outer skin of the aircraft wing. The root intention in structural design, therefore, is to manufacture a structure that is capable of resisting all loads applied without any failure in its expected life (Carrera & Zappino, 2015). In this section, we realize economical and safe explicit set of requirements of the final structure to sufficiently propel the aircraft.
v. Prototype Fabrication
An early sample or model is built to test the application of various composite materials on the aircraft. This will largely help in giving a good impression of how the aircraft will look and perform in the actual world. This is where, engineers are able to assess the outcomes of their initial model and come up with constructive corrections in order to finally deliver an optimally performing aircraft (Weststrate, Squillante, Steinback, Chekanov & Squillante, 2016).
vi. Airplane performance, stability, and structural integrity
The final scope of this project is to find out the performance and stability of the aircraft after it has been designed.
The basic design phase of the sandwich aircraft wings will then come to an end at this point. It is evident that our designs did not reach the detailed phase, we have ended our project at the basic design (Sahoo, Priyadarshini & Shekhar, 2015).
2. Process and timeline
In order to ensure the success of this project, I need to have a good timeline for the series of events of procedures that I need to accomplish (Naghizadeh, Manteghi & Ranga 2016). All these events will be categorized as milestones. Four milestones will be utilized to map out the entire project. Alongside these milestones, I will be assessing other similar projects that have been successfully accomplished in order to help me gauge how far and how good my progress is from successful completion. The initial milestone is to formulate a project proposal that will be assessed and approved by the supervisor. This milestone was completed on December, 29th 2017. I prepared the proposal on 28th December and submitted it the next day. Readily available resources were used in this milestone. I only had to type the report into a word processor and submit the work. Therefore, I only needed a computer and some photocopying papers to print the report. After presenting the proposal, my supervisor took three days to review it and make recommendations. Consequently, on the 2nd January 2018, I received the supervisor’s review sheet which gave me positive feedback to begin my research.
The second milestone for this project is a collection of data. This phase will cover one and half weeks beginning from 17th January to 29th January. The first thing to accomplish this is formulating questionnaire which will be utilized for collection of data (Palinkas, Horwitz, Green, Wisdom, Duan & Hoagwo, 2015). I will also draft some interviewing questions which will be used to interview different aircraft engineers by email. This milestone needs some resources in order to accomplish it. I will spend an amount of money sending the questionnaires to different engineers in different companies by mail. I will also have to send follow up emails in order to ensure that all the emails sent were received. I will have to convince the engineers to respond to my questionnaires despite their busy schedules.
The analysis and interpretation of data is the third milestone. This will involve the interpretation of data that have been collected from the previous milestone. This will be done in three days, which is from 30th January to 1st February. This will greatly help in making decisions on the perfect components required in making the skin of an aircraft wing. An inferential and descriptive analysis of the data collected will be done deeply to ensure no mistakes are made in the process. From the results of this analysis, I will be able to determine the properties of materials appropriate to making sandwich panels. I will also get to understand the conditions with which these composite materials need to operate in to guarantee their strength, weight, and durability. This milestone will design the parameters for the composite materials and further establish the performance indices for the design of the aircraft wing using the proposed composite materials bearing in mind that aeronautical experts have carried out several studies regarding the research questions raised for the study. Resources needed for this milestone will be software programs for analysis of data. The perfect software I will go for is ANSYS. ANSYS is a graphical statistical software that is pretty easy to utilize. No money will be needed for purchasing this software since it is available for free downloads from the internet. I will have my supervisor guide me in choosing which statistical tests to use.
Finally, the fourth milestone will be reviewing the final draft of the project together with my supervisor. This will give me a chance to get my supervisor’s feedback on the project plus his recommendations if any. It is here that I will also have the chance to ask questions on areas that were not clear to me when doing my project. Not many resources will be required for this milestone. I will only have to set up a meeting with my supervisor on skype. When the supervisor approves my project, I will consider it as done. I am sure that there will be not much changes to this project and that the supervisor will approve it by the 15th of February.

2.1. Gantt chart
28th December 17th January 29th January 30th January 1st February 14th Feb
Project proposal
Data Collection
Analysis and interpretation of data
Reviewing the final draft of the project

3. Communication Plan
The success of every project is dependent on the goodness of its communication (Lindlof & Taylor 2017). This project will require the participation of various parties in order to ensure its success. First, there must be a good and efficient way of communicating with the supervisor. The supervisor needs to initially approve my project proposal and should be always available to give recommendations on how to accomplish various critical tasks such as data collection and data analysis. During data collection, there is a need for sending emails to engineers from various aviation companies, and they must respond to them. No response to the questionnaire will be a good recipe for failure since I will have no data to analyze for the sake of the next phase of the projects. In order to ensure that all the engineers contacted to respond to the questionnaire, I will have to look for their personal phone contacts in order to follow up on the progress and urge them to be true in answering the questions. Face to face communication with my supervisor will also be very crucial since I will not have to wait for an email response to get clear recommendations on changes I need to make.
3.1. Communication Plan Chart.
Title Channel of communication Reason Time
Sending Proposal to the Supervisor Email To seek approval before starting out on the entire project 29th December 2017
Response from Supervisor Email Approval or denial of proposal 2nd January, 2018
Sending questionnaire Email Get true picture of what needs to be done 18th January 2018
Follow up Email and phone calls To ensure engineers respond to the questionnaire appropriately 21st January 2018
Supervisor meeting Face to face and Skype Advice on how to analyze the data 30th January 2018
Final submission Email and skype Get consent from the supervisor 10th February 2018

4. Bibliography

Benyahia, F., Albedah, A. and Bouiadjra, B.B., 2014. Analysis of the adhesive damage for different patch shapes in the bonded composite repair of aircraft structures. Materials & Design (1980-2015), 54, pp.18-24.
Carrera, E. and Zappino, E., 2015. Carrera unified formulation for free-vibration analysis of aircraft structures. AIAA Journal.
Katunin, A., Dragan, K. and Dziendzikowski, M., 2015. Damage identification in aircraft composite structures: a case study using various non-destructive testing techniques. Composite structures, 127, pp.1-9.
Lindlof, T.R. and Taylor, B.C., 2017. Qualitative communication research methods. Sage publications.
Naghizadeh, M., Manteghi, M., Ranga, M. and Naghizadeh, R., 2016. Managing integration in complex product systems: The experience of the IR-150 aircraft design program. Technological Forecasting and Social Change.
Palinkas, L.A., Horwitz, S.M., Green, C.A., Wisdom, J.P., Duan, N. and Hoagwood, K., 2015. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), pp.533-544.
Proctor, R.W. and Van Zandt, T., 2018. Human factors in simple and complex systems. CRC press.
Sahoo, S., Priyadarshini, L. and Shekhar, G., 2015. Flight Test Instrumentation System for a Typical Prototype Civil Aircraft. International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, 8(3), pp.977-983.
Weststrate, E.R., Squillante, M.S., Steinback, M., Chekanov, S. and Squillante, M.R., 2016, October. Hybrid NDI Technology for Rapid Inspection of Large Aircraft. In ASNT Annual Conference 2016 (pp. 146-153).